Education and the Environment Book

CSS Menu Button by Css3Menu.com


The EIC Model™
Environment as an Integrating Context for improving student learning

Closing the Achievement Gap: Using the Environment
as an Integrating Context (EIC Model™)
Executive Summary
California Student Assessment Project - Phase One (2000)
California Student Assessment Project - Phase Two (2005)
Educational Efficacy of Environmental Education
Pieces of a Puzzle: Status of EE in the U.S. (1995)

Summary of SEER's Research About the EIC Model™ and Research About Place-based Education

INTRODUCTION

     Since its founding in 1995, the State Education and Environment Roundtable (SEER) has been focused on research into the academic benefits of environment-based education for K-12 students. In 1998, SEER published its ground-breaking research about the academic and behavioral benefits of using the environment as an integrating context for learning (Lieberman & Hoody, 1998). This report, Closing the Achievement Gap: Using the Environment as an Integrating Context for Learning, was done in partnership with SEER's original 12 member State Departments of Education.
      The Closing the Achievement Gap study examined 40 schools that had been using the environment as a context for teaching science, history/social science, English/language arts and math. Data came from site visits to all 40 schools, four different teacher surveys, interviews with more than 400 students and 250 teachers and administrators. The primary results reported in Closing the Achievement Gap included:
• Higher scores on standardized measures of academic achievement in reading, writing, math, science, and social studies;
• Reduced discipline and classroom management problems;
• Increased student engagement and enthusiasm for learning; and,
• Greater pride and ownership in students' accomplishments.
     SEER developed the EIC Model™ (using the Environment as an Integrating Context for learning) in 1997. The model is based on SEER's research and the contributions of the 12 state departments of education that were SEER's founding members.
     The EIC Model™ is an instructional strategy that combines all of the educational best practices that were observed in SEER's research. The EIC Model™ brings together six key instructional practices:

Local Natural and Community Surroundings as Context (more than a venue) for connecting together these proven pedagogies, to improve teaching and learning;
Community-based Investigations with Opportunities for Environmental Service-Learning that provide learning experiences that offer both minds-on and hands-on experiences through service-learning opportunities;
Integrated-Interdisciplinary Instruction that breaks down traditional boundaries between disciplines;
Learner-Centered, Constructivist Approaches adapted to the needs and unique abilities of individual students;
Collaborative Instruction so teachers, parents, students and community members can connect together instruction and learning; and,
Combinations of Cooperative and Independent Learning that promote collaboration among students while encouraging individual students to maximize their potential.

     Since SEER's original research was published in 1998, there has been a variety of follow-up research projects that have confirmed SEER's results. The purpose of this document is to summarize the results of studies by SEER and other researchers regarding the effects of the EIC Model™ on student achievement as well as classroom discipline and attendance. This document also provides an annotated bibliography of references to available research documents.

SUMMARY OF RESULTS

     The results summarized below represent studies that have been conducted on schools and student populations that use the EIC Model™. The majority of schools included in these studies received professional development from SEER and received follow-up technical support from SEER and its state department of education partners. In the cases of Athman and Monroe 2004, Duffin and PEER Associates 2005, and NEETF 2000 the studies included both schools that worked with SEER and other schools that the researchers indicated conformed with the EIC Model™.

Summary of Results and Annotated Bibliography Related to Student Achievement, Classroom Discipline and Attendance

Abrams, Kathy Shea. (1999).Summary of Project Outcomes from EE and SSS Schools' Final Report Data. Florida Office of Environmental Education. Tallahassee, FL.
      This study reported the results of work with 13 Florida schools. After implementing the EIC Model™ the schools reported higher scores on state reading, writing, and mathematics assessment tests, lower rates of discipline referrals by teachers, and more family and community volunteer participation in school projects.
• Alva Elementary-Seventy-one percent of fourth graders met or exceeded District standards on Florida Writes! expository writing in 1999 compared to 48% in 1998, and on narrative writing, 84% in 1999 compared to 47% in 1998;
• Belleview Elementary-Ninety-one percent of eighth graders met or exceeded a rating of 3 on Florida Writes! in 1999 compared to 77% in 1998;
• Eastside Elementary-On FCAT Reading, 51% of the fourth graders achieved Level 3 in 1999 compared to 46% in 1998, and met the state's higher performing criteria in 1999;
• Gateway Magnet Elementary-In 1999, 66% of fourth grade students made a composite score of 3 or better on Florida Writes!, an increase of 7% over 1998. On FCAT Reading, 67% of the fourth grade students achieved Level 3 or higher in 1999, an increase of 3% over 1998. On FCAT Mathematics, 49% of the fifth grade students achieved Level 3 or higher in 1999, an increase of 6% over 1998. Additional evidence of student performance was seen in weather data collection (2nd grade), Cornell University bird feeder data collection (4th and 5th grades) and animal track box data collection (5th grade);
• Cutler Ridge Middle School-Seventy-seven percent of all student workgroups designed and completed web pages on a topic concerning the environment of south Florida;
• St. Augustine High-Nine weeks and semester grades were monitored for the academy's fourteen tenth grade students. Only one student was removed from the academy for a failing grade in Algebra II. The minimum academy requirement is at least a 2.5 GPA; and,
• Sebastian River High-On FCAT Reading, 23% of the academy's tenth grade students achieved at least a Level 3 in 1999, and 38% achieved at least a Level 3 on FCAT Math. Of the school's six academies, the Environmental Studies Academy students demonstrated the highest percentages of Level 3 or above on both sections of the FCAT.
• University High-Student-Discipline Referrals: Two hundred and two 10th-grade through 12th-grade students participated in the Greenway project, which was the school's EE & SSS project. They included 22 Resource Management Academy students (10th grade), 90 Environmental Science students (11th-12th grades), 30 Social Science students (10th grade), and 60 Communications students (10th-12th grades). The students represented 9% of the school's 10th-12th grade student enrollment. For the Greenway project students, the tardiness referral rate for 1998-1999 was 2.5% compared to 13.3% for all 10th-12th grade students. The unauthorized absence referral rate for Greenway project students was 1% compared to 30% for all 10th-12th grade students. For Greenway project students, the insubordination referral rate was 0% compared to 5.7% for all 10th-12th grade students.

Athman, Julie & Monroe, Martha. (2004). The effects of environment-based education on students' achievement motivation. Journal of Interpretation Research, 9(1): 9-25.
     Greater achievement motivation is associated with greater cognitive engagement in schoolwork, which improves academic performance. In 11 Florida high schools, 400 9th and 12th grade students took part in a comparison of achievement motivation in classrooms with EIC programs and traditional classrooms. Students filled out a 20-item Achievement Motivation Inventory and selected teachers and students in the participating programs were also interviewed. Controlling for grade point average, gender and ethnicity, environment-based education significantly raised 9th and 12th graders' achievement motivation in comparison to the control groups. Students and teachers attributed increased motivation to the use of the local environment, teachers' ability to tailor learning experiences to students' interests and strengths, and the application of learning to real-life issues and problems, which often enabled students to present their work to community audiences beyond their teacher.
• For the 9th-grade study, the treatment was statistically significant. These results suggest that when controlling for pretest score, GPA, gender, and ethnicity, there was a significant positive effect of the environment-based programs on students' achievement motivation; 9th-grade students in the environment-based programs scored 2.75 points higher on the 100-point inventory than 9th-grade students in the control group.
• For the 12th-grade study, the treatment was statistically significant. These results suggest that when controlling for GPA, gender, and ethnicity, there was a significant positive effect of the environment-based programs on 12th-grade students' achievement motivation; this effect, however, was moderated by ethnicity.

Duffin, M., Powers, A., Tremblay, G., & PEER Associates. (2004). Place-based Education Evaluation Collaborative: Report on cross-program research and other program evaluation activities, 2003-2004. Retrieved October 6, 2004.
     This evaluation study reports survey results from 338 educators spanning 55 schools and four different place-based education programs. Positive, statistically significant correlations were found between the amount of participant exposure to the program and nearly all desired outcomes, such as educator engagement/personal growth, ability to meet curricular goals, use of local resources for teaching, adult reports of student engagement in learning and academic achievement, and student reports of attachment to place, time spent outdoors, and environmental stewardship behavior, among others. Additionally, survey results suggested that these place-based education programs seed lasting change in a school's culture.
      This document reviews research and evaluation on impacts of place-based education on student academic achievement. Part 1 summarizes the results of ten studies from across the United States. Part 2 summarizes the results from the Place-based Education Evaluation Collaborative (PEEC) and CO-SEED.
• Standardized test scores (MCAS) showed that 8th grade students at Beebe Health and Environmental Magnet School (Massachusetts) scored higher than state and district averages in the life sciences, moving from 60% to 73%.
• Standardized test scores (MCAS) showed that 8th grade students at Beebe Health and Environmental Magnet School (Massachusetts) improved in math and went from scoring below the district average to scoring at the state average, moving from 40% to 54%.
• First-grade students at the Young Achievers School who received more place-based education outperformed peers on all measures.

Ernst, Julie Athman & Monroe, Martha. (2004). The effect of environment-based education on students' critical thinking skills and disposition toward critical thinking. Environmental Education Research, 10(4): 507-522.
      Four hundred 9th and 12th grade students in 11 Florida high schools participated in a comparison of their critical thinking skills in EIC classrooms and traditional classrooms. Controlling for grade point average, gender and ethnicity, EIC programs significantly raised students' scores on the Cornell Critical Thinking Test at both grade levels, and at the 12th grade level, significantly raised scores on the California Measure of Mental Motivation in addition. In interviews, teachers indicated that EIC programs influenced students' critical thinking because they integrate multiple disciplines through a common environmental theme; involve open-ended projects that require hypothesizing, investigating issues, and conducting research; empower students to be responsible for their own learning by giving them a voice in selecting their projects, goals and action plans; and provide opportunities for students to reflect on their learning and connect it to their communities.

Falco, Edward. (2004). Environment-Based Education: Improving Attitudes and Academics for Adolescents. South Carolina Department of Education. Columbia, SC.

      Ten middle schools participated in EIC implementation in South Carolina. In the first year all of them showed some degree of improved attendance, behavior, and academic achievement. The behavioral data that were collected suggest that the EIC Model™ was helping overcome student disengagement and that it has real potential to enhance adolescents' education.

Lieberman, Gerald A. and Hoody, Linda. (1998). Closing the Achievement Gap: Using the Environment as an Integrating Context for Learning. San Diego, CA.

      This is a study of student performance in 40 schools implementing EIC, and was done in partnership with 12 State Departments of Education. Data came from site visits to all 40 schools, four different teacher surveys, interviews with more than 400 students and 250 teachers and administrators. In addition, in 14 schools EIC students were compared with students in traditional classrooms on standardized test scores, grade point averages, attendance, student attitude measures, and records of disciplinary actions.
      Results showed the following benefits for students in EIC programs:
• Higher scores on standardized measures of academic achievement in reading, writing, math, science, and social studies; reduced discipline and classroom management problems; increased engagement and enthusiasm for learning; and greater pride and ownership in their accomplishments.
• EIC students scored higher, on three of four comparative studies of standardized science achievement data, than their peers from traditional programs. In the fourth comparative study, EIC and traditional students scored equally.
• All five comparative studies of achievement data from programs where math was integrated into EIC found that standardized measures affirm the academic benefits of environment-based learning.
• On the average, the EIC students outperformed their peers from traditional programs at all five of the schools that conducted these analyses.
• All 17 comparative studies of language arts achievement data found that standardized measures affirm the academic benefits of EIC-based learning for reading, writing, and general language skills. On the average, the EIC students outperformed their peers from traditional programs at all nine of the schools that conducted these analyses.
• Ninety-six percent of educators responding to the learning survey respondents reported that students in EIC programs developed higher-level, critical-thinking skills than those of their traditional peers. Educators reported that EIC has important effects on students' thinking skills including (percent of survey respondents): a. increased ability to think creatively (98%); b. greater proficiency in solving problems and thinking strategically (97%); and, c. better application of systems thinking (89%).
• All nine of the comparative studies (100 percent) indicate that EIC students demonstrate better behavior, attendance, and attitudes than traditional students.
• Reports from 70 percent of educators responding to the Learning Survey coincide with the schools that conducted comparative analyses-discipline problems decreased with the adoption of EIC approaches.
• Hotchkiss Elementary School-Student behavior improved as evidenced by disciplinary referrals to the office decreasing by 91%, for all grades, during the first three years of implementing EIC. First year totaled 560 incidents; 2nd year decreased to 160 incidents; and, 3rd year only 50 incidents. Tracked 1994-97.
• Huntingdon Area Middle School-Student behavior improved as evidenced by EIC students having 97% fewer incidents than other 6th graders. 6th graders in the EIC program represented only 1% of disciplinary incidents although they comprised 33% of the entire 6th grade population. Tracked 1996-97.
• Little Falls High School-Student behavior improved as evidenced by EIC students having 40% fewer problems than other 9th graders. 9th graders in the EIC program represented only 28% of disciplinary incidents although they comprised 46% of the entire 9th grade population. Tracked 1995-96. Student behavior improved as evidenced by EIC students having 54% fewer suspensions than other 9th graders. 9th graders in the EIC program represented only 21% of suspensions although they comprised 46% of the entire 9th grade population. Tracked 1995-96. 9th graders in the EIC program had a 2.4% higher rate of attendance than other Little Falls 9th graders. Tracked 1995-96.
• Tahoma High School-9th graders in the EIC program had a 1.5% higher rate of attendance than other Tahoma 9th graders. Tracked 1995-96. 10th graders in the EIC program had a 1% higher rate of attendance than other Tahoma 10th graders. Tracked 1995-96. EIC students had a 9.5% better attitude than other 9th and 10th graders, as assessed with S.A.M. (School Attitude Measure). Tracked 1995-96.
• Valley High School-EIC students had an 11% higher rate of attendance than other Valley students. Tracked 1994-96.

      Seven case studies of schools using EIC approaches showed improved scores on reading and math assessment tests, better performance in science and social studies, and declines in discipline problems.
• Reading scores improve, sometimes spectacularly. A notable example is the performance of Third-Grade students at Hawley Environmental Elementary School in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. All of these students passed the Wisconsin Reading Comprehension Test, as compared with only 25% of the total Milwaukee public school population;
• Math scores also improve. Typically, in environment-based programs, students' scores on standardized math tests improve. At Isaac Dickson Elementary School in Asheville, North Carolina, Grade Four students achieved a remarkable 31 percentage point increase in math achievement in just one year;
• Students perform better in science and social studies. On state and national social studies and science tests, the scores of students who engaged in environment-based studies almost always exceeded those of students in traditional programs. At the School for Environmental Studies in Apple Valley, Minnesota, for example, students who took the ACT test for college admission scored higher than their peers in the district, the state, and the nation;
• Students develop the ability to make connections and transfer their knowledge from familiar to unfamiliar contexts. At Condit Elementary School in Bellaire, Texas, Third-Grade students who took part in the research-based environment program successfully solved problems involving natural habitats and sharpened their higher-level thinking skills;
• Students learn to "do science" rather than just "learn about science." Using nature as an outdoor laboratory helps create conditions conducive to learning. Students' natural interest in the environment motivates them to learn and understand the complexities of their world. Increased student motivation was observed in all of the schools and classrooms included in this study;
• Classroom discipline problems decline. Teachers who use environment-based strategies often note that classroom discipline problems decline, and formerly disruptive students "find themselves" in the environment's hands-on approach to learning. Improved classroom behavior was observed by virtually all of the teachers in the schools studied;
• Every child has the opportunity to learn at a high level. Teacher after teacher in Kentucky reported that students previously performing at low academic levels "came alive" when introduced to an environment-based curriculum;
• Hawley students
, in Milwaukee Wisconsin, are more interested in school and have more opportunities to use information they are learning in practical projects. The focus on achievement and on creating a rigorous environment-based curriculum creates a more disciplined environment as well.

      This study identified eight paired sets of students: one class exposed to EIC-like programs and the other without. In two cases, the paired classes came from the same school; in six cases, from different, neighboring schools matched by demographics and socioeconomic descriptors. Evidence came from standardized test scores, site visits, and teacher surveys and interviews. Comparing standardized measures of academic achievement in reading, writing, math, science and social studies, the EIC students did better 72% of the time and their attendance was better 77% of the time. They also showed fewer discipline problems, increased enthusiasm for learning, and greater pride in their accomplishments.
      Combined data from all eight sets of comparative pairs of schools indicated:
• EIC students scored higher than their traditional counterparts in 72%, 101 of 140 academic assessments;
• In 76%, 69 of 91 language arts comparisons, EIC students scored higher than did students in the traditional programs;
• EIC students demonstrated higher scores than their traditional peers in 63%, 17 of the 27 math assessments analyzed;
• In 64%, 7 of the 11 science assessments, EIC students scored higher than did the traditionally educated students;
• 64%, 7 of the 11 science assessments, EIC students scored higher than did the traditionally educated students;
• When contrasted with the traditional student populations, students in EIC programs scored higher in 8 of 11 social studies assessments (73%);
• Compared to their peers in traditional programs, students in the environment-based education programs had higher attendance rates in 77% of the comparisons (17 of 22);
• Drake Integrated Studies Curricula (DISC) students (EIC Model™ treatment) had higher attendance rates in 9th (2.1% higher), 10th (2.6% higher), 11th (2.0% higher), and 12th (1.0% higher), compared to students in Drake High School's traditional program;
• Students in Lincoln High School's Integrated Studies in Systems (ISIS) program (EIC Model™ treatment) had higher attendance rates in the 9th (1.4% higher), and 10th (2.5% higher) grade program than students in Lincoln High School's traditional program;
• Students in Yreka High School's environment-based education program (EIC Model™ treatment) had higher attendance rates in 9th (3.0% higher), 10th (4.7% higher), 11th (5.5% higher), and 12th (3.9% higher), grades than the socio-economically and demographically comparable students in Del Norte High School's traditional program;
• Students in Pinecrest Intermediate School's environment-based education program (EIC Model™ treatment) had higher attendance rates in 6th (5.0% higher), 7th (3.5% higher) and 8th (1.4% higher), grades than the socio-economically and demographically comparable students in Bridgeport Intermediate School's traditional program;
• Students in Edna Maquire Elementary School's environment-based education program (EIC Model™ treatment) had higher attendance rates in 4th (1.6% higher) and 5th (1.6% higher) grades to those at the socio-economically and demographically comparable students in Cummins Elementary School's traditional program, rates at 3rd grade were equivalent;
• Students in Brookside Elementary School's environment-based education program (EIC Model™ treatment) had equivalent attendance rates to those at the socio-economically and demographically comparable students in Cummins Elementary School's traditional program.
• Students in Thomas Elementary School's environment-based education program (EIC Model™ treatment) had equivalent attendance rates to those at the socio-economically and demographically comparable students in Bel Aire Elementary School's traditional program.
      The document reports the results of comparative analysis of four matched treatment and control pairs of schools. The results are based on comparison of standardized test data from California's STAR (Standardized Testing and Reporting) assessment system representing five school years of scores from second through fifth grades in reading, math, language and spelling. The research team used the API statewide ranking of similar schools to identify appropriate control schools to compare with the treatment schools Students in the study's environment-based programs outperformed their traditionally educated peers as evidenced by the year-to-year standardized test data in four core subject areas. The most notable quantitative evidence includes:
• In 100% of the reading assessments, treatment students scored as well or better than control students;
• In 92.5% of the math assessments, treatment students scored as well or significantly higher than control students;
• In 95% of the language assessments, treatment students scored as well or significantly higher than control students;
• In 97.5% of the spelling assessments, treatment students scored as well or significantly higher than control students;
• In over 96% of all cases treatment students scored as well or significantly higher than control students;
• In only 4% of the cases control students scored significantly higher than treatment students; and
• In 42% of the cases treatment students scored significantly higher than control students in reading, math, language and spelling.

      In 2000, the Chesapeake Bay Foundation (CBF) initiated the Bay Schools Project to provide a vehicle for allowing CBF and Maryland schools to adopt EIC Model™ programs by using the Chesapeake Bay and its watershed environment as the theme for integrated instruction.
The findings from the Bay Schools Project reinforce results published in other evaluation literature showing that student engagement in learning is greater in classes where teachers emphasize the EIC Model™. In all five Bay Schools, students whose teachers provided more opportunities for them to participate in project-based, interdisciplinary activities reported more frequently that what they learned in school was interesting and useful, and that they felt more empowered to make a difference in their communities.
     The consistency of the outcomes observed at five sites, each of which had a different combination of implementation strategies and challenges, provides evidence that inferences about program replication are valid and warranted. Although comparison data were not collected at schools that did not participate in the Bay Schools Project, each school provided its own comparison data because students were grouped according to the intensity of their EIC Model™ experiences. The stability of the relationship between EIC Model™ experience and student outcomes suggests an EIC Model™ can be effectively implemented with a wide range of students

American Institutes of Research. (2005). Effects of Outdoor Education Programs for Children in California. Sacramento. Retrieved March 15, 2005.
      This study focused on at-risk sixth-grade students from four California elementary schools who attended three outdoor programs which used hands-on, inquiry-based methods in the natural world to study ecology and earth science. The participating schools served mostly Hispanic students (ranging from 69%-89% of the student population) and a high proportion of English Learners (32%-66%). From 81%-100% of the children qualified for the free or reduced lunch program. Within schools, the evaluation divided students by classroom into treatment groups (a total of 119 students in the final survey) and control groups (a total of 106, who were not scheduled to attend the outdoor program until after the study period). Students were surveyed three times (before treatment, immediately after, and again six to ten weeks after) and parents and teachers were surveyed twice (before treatment and six to ten weeks after). In addition, site visits were conducted, including interviews with principals and interviews or focus groups with teachers.
• Children who attended outdoor school significantly raised their science scores by 3 points (27 percent), as 
measured by a pre- and post-survey administered immediately upon their return to school.
• The increase in science knowledge was maintained six to ten weeks following program participation, with no
significant loss in science scores.
• Participation in the outdoor schools was associated with higher ratings for conflict resolution skills and
cooperation (longer-term student assessments) and more positive environmental behaviors (parents' reports).
• According to teachers' ratings, the children who attended the outdoor program received significantly higher
ratings in self-esteem, conflict resolution, relationship with peers, problem solving, motivation to learn, and behavior in class.

      This study is highlighted in a report titled 2004 Report Card on the Status of Environmental Education in Washington State which was originally retrieved from http://wa.audubon.org, and more recently retrieved November 14, 2005.
      The Pacific Education Institute's Environmental Education Assessment project compared 77 pairs of demographically equivalent schools across the state: one with environmental education (EE) integrated throughout the grades and curriculum and a matching school without EE. Schools with EE programs consistently showed higher test scores on state standardized tests in math, reading and writing, and more support from parents, community and administration. Young people exposed to EE tended to improve their overall GPA, stay in school longer, receive higher than average scholarship awards, and display more responsible behavior in their school and community. Schools with as little as 20% of the teaching staff involved with EE showed statistically higher standardized test scores and more students who met state standards.
• According to the results, schools that undertake systemic environmental education programs consistently
have higher test scores on the state standardized tests over comparable "non-EE" schools.
• The mean percentages of the students who meet standards on WASL (Washington Assessment of Student
Learning) and ITBS (Iowa Test of Basic Skills) tests are higher in WASL and ITBS in the schools with environmental programs.
• There were no EE schools that had lower percentage of students who meet or above standards in all six
areas.
• Overall, 73 pairs out of 77 EE schools had higher scores in at least one subject. Also the research shows a pattern indicating that in schools with environmental educational programs, teachers tend to use natural areas more; have more EE professional development/training; have more support from parents, community
and administration; and see more value in environmental education.
      In 1999-2000, the East Feliciana parish began Project Connect, a district wide place-based math and science initiative, in an attempt to reform their poor academic performance. The district includes 5 elementary/middle schools and over 2000 K-8 students, 80% of whom are African American, and 85% of whom receive free lunch. Fifty-two different teachers participated in one or more of three consecutive summer trainings on place-based learning. This study investigated 4th grade ELA, Math, Science, Social Studies scores on Louisiana Educational Assessment Program (LEAP 21) from 1998-2002, comparing the district to the state for % of students at "unsatisfactory" level. The performance gap between the district and state decreased for all subject areas. Further, the greatest individual school success occurred at Slaughter Elementary where three of the district's place-based leadership team teach.
• In science, East Feliciana's 4th graders posted an 8.1-point decrease in the number of students scoring unsatisfactory between 1999-00 and 2001-02 while in the state overall, there was a 3.7-point decrease. In 2000-01, East Feliciana's 4th graders tied the overall state performance in science. In social studies, there was an 11.3-point decrease in the number of students scoring unsatisfactory compared to a 3.2-point decrease for the state overall.

rainbarState Education and Environment Roundtable
13648 Jackrabbit Road
Poway, California 92064
Telephone: (858) 676-0272
Fax: (508) 462-8331

Founding Sponsor The Pew Charitable Trusts 

Legal terms for use of this information. 
The "EIC Model™" and "using the Environment as an Integrating Context for
learning (EIC Model™)" Copyright © 1997-2014. All rights reserved.

Last update 5/1/2014